One line of training that I have studied is the taking of 'positions'. While I take the point of your comments, you are only giving the reasons for the superior taking the decision he did. (These are all 'emotion' based.) What helped me personally, and has been very useful with others also, is learning to change one's personal position. Basically there are three: Self, Other, Observer. I refer to these as the SeOtOb positons. Clearly the superior NEVER ever got beyond his own personal position. He was so totally involved in himself and all he could see from his 'Self' position, that he did not even think or try and find out if there was 'another' position. If one can take a step back and try and see from the 'Other' position, this alone is very good. If however one can get to the 'Observer' position, where you observe from a completely unbiased, detached, non-emotional position, it puts one in the best position to make a decision. This is not only true of the workplace, but possibly even more so in personal relationships, especially marriage. I would be happy to discuss this further if anyone would like to do so.